O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm for Allah, witnesses in justice, and do not let the hatred of a people prevent you from being just. Be just; that is nearer to righteousness. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is [fully] Aware of what you do. (5:8)
Religion and Society
Throughout the ages, one of the most important questions confronting mankind has been, “on what basis should economic resources be distributed?” The answer depends on the underlying concept of justice and fairness, which, in turn, depends on the belief system. In Islam, the concept of justice for humans is simple and unambiguous: justice is obtained when all things are placed where intended by the Creator and when everyone is given their rightful due. How are humans to know where the right (just) places are for everything and what is the rightful due for everyone? The answer: follow the rules prescribed by the Creator. By instrumentality, the Creator has provided all that is necessary for humans to achieve perfection of the human state. He has also clearly designated the path to perfection and has marked it with rules of behavior in all facets of human life. Rule-compliance assures justice, which assures balance for individuals and for society. Compliance with rules guarantees that humans draw closer to their ultimate objective, namely, their Creator. The gist of this whole discussion is that only that knowledge is reliable and authentic which is learned gradually, stage by stage, just as one learns ABC and then the same is practically experienced and exercised. Morality is a result of just behavior, that is, rule-compliant behavior. Undoubtedly, justice is seen as a supreme virtue.
“…the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice. None can change His Words.” (6:115)
In a series of verses in Chapter 7 culminating in Verse 96, the Quran states the necessary and sufficient conditions for the implementation of its concept of development. To do so, it recalls examples of failed societies, focusing on five communities identified by their messengers: Noah, Hud, Salih, Lot, and Shoáyb (59–93:7). In each case, the Quran explains how after each messenger called his people to their Cherisher Lord, admonishing them to comply with His Prescribed Rules and to desist from oppression and transgression, and from economic, social, and political exploitation, the majority of the people rejected their respective prophet repeatedly.
These examples appear to have been selected to demonstrate how a society’s failure to comply with prescribed rules brings about its own destruction. In each case the perseverance of the messengers in urging rule-compliance—such as treating other humans with fairness, justice, and dignity; not oppressing the weak among them; being faithful to their promises and contracts; avoiding opulence and behavior contrary to human dignity and purpose, and not discriminating against other humans for whatever reason—was met with a severe rejection of the message. Each of these societies was repeatedly tested and warned. However, instead of learning from these experiences and turning to their Creator, the people rejected the source and purpose of these tests and asserted that the ensuing punishments were usual events much like those their fathers and forefathers had also experienced. These verses then culminate in Verse 96: “If the people of these communities had [dynamically and actively] believed and had taqwa [were fully conscious and aware of Allah] We would have opened for them Barakat [blessings] from the heavens and the earth.” This verse contains the essence of the Metaframework’s concept of development and growth as well as the necessary and sufficient conditions for achieving every dimension of development or development in Islam.
Heretofore, it has been necessary to preface the translation of the word iman as “belief” with modifiers: dynamic and active. The reason is that the word “belief” in its natural linguistic-cultural setting conveys notions that do not accurately reflect the meaning of iman in the Quranic sense. For one thing, the word “belief” conveys a sense of static, rigid, passive, dogmatic, self-righteous, and unapproachable. In its Quranic setting, iman is a dynamic process; a process of movement from one level of “belief” to another. Each plateau represents an experiential inner set of expectations or intending and feedback loops in response to external stimuli generated by the processes of submersion into the crucible of testing, trials, and tribulations. Each plateau signals a higher consciousness and awareness of the “self” and her Creator. An upward movement from one plateau to the next is facilitated by the correct response to external stimuli through rule-compliance, which gradually strengthens through the qualitative evolution of expectations and intending. This last term, intending—the verbal noun of intention—is selected to represent the concept of niyyah, which is, again, a dynamic concept representing the directed will of the self. It expresses the changing quality of iman, its strength, and the lessons the self has learned from her experience in the crucible of testing.
Every “intending” of the will has consequences. In a famous saying the Prophet asserts, “Actions [and their consequences] depend on the intending [that generates them].” Intending expresses the degree of self-development, an experiential and existential manifestation of progress toward the full realization of the Creator. Each upward movement of the self represents a new state of awareness and is also a dynamic reorientation of the inner expectations of the self from herself and from her Cherisher Lord. Each reorientation of inner expectation leads to a qualitative transformation of intending. In the dynamic process of reorientation and the qualitative transformation of intending, there is a feedback process involving the relationship.
Social Capital Inc. Foreign-Policy Debate
Despite the rise in the prominence of Social Capital analysis, ‘relatively little attention has been given to the role of religion in social capital formation. The upshot has been an insufficient and unconvincing explanation for the phenomenal, recent, and rapid rise of political Islam in most Muslim societies. It seems that thirty years since the idea was brought to the modern world that Islam might be a formula for governance, political Islam has gained vast momentum in almost every Muslim and Arab state. From Morocco through Jordan to the Gulf, Islamists’ voluntary charities and networks seem to have transformed themselves into successful political parties and congregations, winning parliamentary elections or registering important victories in local, municipalities, and professional associations. For most observers in the West, the recent political elevation of Islamic charity organizations is seen as a ‘surprise’ (BBC News 2006), unexpected, and even ‘ambiguous’ (Abdel-Latif 2005). Muslim societies are going through hard times and it is reflected in political Islam itself as the political rise and prominence of voluntary religious organizations demanding large sacrifices.
It seeks to enhance understanding of Islam by highlighting the cultural, civil, and associational traditions of the Islamic religion. Specifically, we analyze the link between religion and social capital in general and Islamic faith and social capital in particular. The Creator has already balanced cost at day first so that resources and associations go in circulation and everyone’s basic needs would go fulfilled automatically and reserves wouldn’t go in vain but for human development purposes and family nourishments for better community optimization where research labs would be the whole one wold in progress, but some part of the community have further scaled prices high and in return underdeveloped areas of world demography faced a shortage of bread through this over-pricing. Situations in the world proved that the actual value of products was short of the price, but when traffickers artificially increased them, the whole distribution system got disturbed on the earth that impacts at basic needs even of the big world community leading to war, for bread. Definitely, they all have to keep their rights back who were bottle-necked without any haste or crime, and what their God has dedicated portion for them, they must take it back. And that part of the community who did that all and put it under the cover of terrorism in blame over others always, everyone knows them soundly. The world is in dispute for this distribution mishandling, inside which blame-game rolls to get hide behind it. It evaluates the key role played by Islamic voluntary associations, particularly the Muslim Brotherhood Movement (one of the oldest, most organized, and successful organizations in the region) in the formation of both social capital and human capital which are held today as prerequisites for promoting civil society, political and social stability. This social reach argues that faith-based organizations represent the most important form of social and human capital in Muslim societies. The recent political elevation of such organizations is thus attributed to their ability to foster social capital in their societies, internalize their religious norms and values, and hence evoke positive attitudes and actions from both their members and supporters.
The inconsistency of social inclusion in the context of Foreign-Policy Debate between Western policy on the issue of Palestine, as typified by Australian foreign policy, not only with the sentiments of increasingly large portions of these societies, but also the inconsistency between such policy formation and current research and trends within the field of conflict resolution. It explores more generalized motivations to participate in politics, including the role of political efficacy, altruism, social justice, and social identification.
Hallmark of our Age
The historical context is related to two attempts that have been made by two civilizations to expand by spreading far beyond the boundaries of their area of origin. The Islamic expansion has transformed the Mediterranean from a Roman into an Islamic Sea and even to encroach into Europe itself. Then followed the European expansion which succeeded in becoming global, mapping the world of Islam into its orbit. The special interest of the sociologist of religion does not revolve around the text, but rather focuses on the social realities of any religion.
Why discipline behavior if the world is ending?