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Employers’ organizations represent their members’ interests and try to organize and support the business sector by various means. Moreover, they try to influence economic government policy and legislation in a way that serves their interests. The category of the Chambers of Commerce and Chambers of Industry deserves the first mention. Similar to the professional associations, membership in these institutions is a prerequisite for anyone wishing to practice commercial or industrial activity. Employers also have voluntary associations. Employers’ voluntary associations try to mediate between their members and the relevant government institutions and they prepare studies about the impact of the prevailing conditions in certain areas on business opportunities. The Businessmen Association endeavors to pool the expertise of its members to foster the private sector and its activities for the sake of economic development. It also tries to promote an integrative environment for the private sector and to motivate businessmen and their companies to perform economic and social good tasks that serve the interests of private sector institutions, companies, and individuals.


In comparison to political parties and professional associations, however, their political influence is limited. Membership in trade unions is voluntary. Without exception, their by-laws stipulate as goals the defense of the legitimate rights and interests of their members, the improvement of labor conditions, the social good provision of assistance in economic and social development, and the spreading of labor union awareness. Many of their by-laws also provide for the establishment of co-operations, associations, clinics, and extending financial aid to their members. Unions have a Social Security Fund at their disposal that pays pensions and treatment of work injuries to their members, as well as compensation when such injuries lead to death or disability.

Indeed, the possibilities for trade unions in labor disputes seem to have been increased once again since the start of the liberalization process. However, the business sector and employers’ organizations also have their connections in the state apparatus. This can be seen from the impressive numbers of foreign workers in the country. Employing foreigners is often beneficial to employers since it makes it easier for them to dismiss employees. The trade unions’ legal possibilities of activism are, to this day, narrowly restricted to the realm of labor and thus tend to exclude other, more “political,” issues. Unlike professional associations, trade unions have since the years of liberalization dutifully adhered to this state-imposed rule of the game. The social base of the movement consisted greatly of property owners and merchants, social strata that benefited from the sociopolitical stability prevailing under the rule as well as from economic government policy that protected private property. These activities are large of an educational, social, and athletic nature. The style of leadership and organization within the movement are at stage largely of a personalized, informal, and spontaneous character.

The drastic socio-economic transformations that took place since its inception, such as urbanization, mass education, and the expanding role of the state brought a decline in tribal and clan cohesiveness with them. This led to a pronounced sense of cultural alienation among recently modernized and educated young. The relative disintegration of traditional social ties and cultural patterns had also important ramifications for the realm of gender. Temptations were greater in a relatively anonymous modern urban society, and women became vulnerable to harassment from males in public spaces. At the same time, traditional notions of the woman as the embodiment of family honor, which makes her totally responsible for any (perceived) sexual misconduct, remained prevalent. Such cultural alienations were compounded by the failure of the socio-economic modernization process to fulfill the expectations of a large part of the population. The economic recession ensured that increasing numbers of educated young people could no longer be absorbed into the job market and unemployment increased markedly. Economic frustrations were inevitably an important factor in the attraction exerted on this youth. This shift in tone did not take place, however, without some degree of internal resistance. Indeed, it gave rise to the differences between those described as the “hawks” and “doves” within the movement. However, its lack of a presence in the institutions of economic society is telling of the lack of vision and strategy in terms of socio-economic policy.

Sparrows by morning, live in peaceful nests! Design shouldn’t dominate things, shouldn’t dominate people. It should help people. Don’t spend your time solving your favorite problems, solve problems that need to be solved, generically. A home is a place where you live, and society is a place where your story begins. Honesty shares honesty, as it is honesty’s nature. Stay always in Ablution and get back to the trust you have been, with.

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