Human Visual Neurobiology

Human visual neuroscience seeks us to understand the processing of visual information by the eye and brain in humans and provides a well-studied model of how sensory systems enable organisms to interact with their environments.

Objects in the environment reflect light rays onto the retina which are transduced by photoreceptors into electrochemical impulses, and this information is sent to the occipital lobe for initial computation before being sent to higher-order brain regions for more modular processing. Visual neurons detect where objects are located in space by signaling only when an object in the visual field is presented in a specific position through receptive fields. Due this able, you can see.

Structure of an Eye

The eyeball is the primary organ by which we receive light information and the only structure by which image-forming vision is possible.

The retina is the tissue that undertakes the initial steps of image formation in the visual system, being the tissue within the eye formed of photoreceptors and other cells.

By way of analogy, the vertebrate eye is often described as being “camera-like” in that it has lenses and apertures that focus light onto a thin detection layer. In this analogy, the retina is the film of the analog camera – the component that is sensitive to light – and the signals thus generated are interpreted by the brain. Research over many decades has revealed that this analogy is very limited: the retina does much more than detect light but instead is a complex network of neurons that processes these signals to simultaneously compute and encode information.

Sight: The special sense

The sense by which the qualities of an object (such as color, luminosity, shape, and size) constituting its appearance are perceived through a process in which light rays entering the eye are transformed by the retina into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve. the act, faculty, or manner of perceiving with the eye is sight.

The act or power of seeing: SIGHT


The conservation and adaptation of primordial visual substrates throughout the phylogenetic tree to humans.

The Vision

The vision is more than an academic discipline that serves to simply annotate our ancestral past. Gaining knowledge into how structure relates to function and how that interplay was shaped by the selective pressures over an array of changing environments bolsters our ability to understand mechanisms of action and to defend ourselves against eye disease. Few organ systems permit the level of accessibility that the eye provides, both anatomically and through evolutionary conservation, to test and evaluate the driving forces of evolution.

The Evolution of Research

The evolution of novel eyes coincides with the first observed sight was one of the major sensory innovations to arise during the “Cambrian Explosion” and provided with the means to interpret and react to light information, a driving force in the growing divergence of life strategy and corresponding body plan. There are several parts that come up together allowing you to see. This makes up your vision. The visual system transcends 550 million years of protozoan and animal phylogeny, is highly accessible due to its extracranial origin, and it benefits us from a vast interdisciplinary knowledge of genetics.

  • Binocular disparity

Binocular disparity is a binocular depth cue produced by a difference in the retinal projection of the same object onto the left eye and right eye retinas as a result of the horizontal separation of the eyes.

Stereopsis, or the perception of the “true” location of the objects in depth obtained on the basis of binocular information, requires the two eyes to be located at different lateral positions so that they receive slightly different projections onto their retinas when focused on the same point in space. In addition, stereopsis requires coordinated eye movements; disorders that interfere with this coordination such as amblyopia and strabismus lead patients to report perceiving two images of a single object.

  • Motion Parallax

Motion parallax is a monocular depth cue produced by a difference in apparent direction and speed of displacement of the objects located at different distances from an observer, as that observer moves through the environment.

Unlike binocular disparity, motion parallax is a monocular depth cue that does not require integrating information from two retinas. However, it is conceptually similar to a binocular disparity in that the visual system must still detect the differences between two retinal images obtained successively rather than simultaneously. Motion parallax requires side-to-side (or translational) movement of the body or the head of an observer as depth information cannot be obtained from rotational movement alone. It has comparable precision to binocular disparity, and its use for depth perception is well documented for both humans and nonhuman animals.

  • Depth Perception

Depth perception is a process of recovering distances to and between objects from a two-dimensional retinal projection or from a two-dimensional image depicting a three-dimensional scene.

Depth perception is a classic case of an ill-defined problem in vision: In principle, an infinite number of three-dimensional configurations can produce the same two-dimensional retinal projection. o cope with this “inverse optics” problem, the human visual system makes a number of assumptions about the likely arrangement of 3D objects given a specific 2D input (e.g., that the occluding object is usually located closer to an observer than the occluded object). These assumptions, together with the information contained in retinal projection (or projections) are then used by the visual system to recover the position of the objects in depth.

  • Occlusion

Occlusion is a monocular depth cue produced by partially overlapping objects: Objects that partially block other parts of the scene are perceived to be closer to an observer than the blocked objects.

Like motion parallax, occlusion is a monocular depth cue that does not require integrating information from two retinas. Unlike motion parallax, however, occlusion is a pictorial depth cue that is available in static images. In addition to using occlusion for ordering objects in-depth, human observers have a strong tendency to perceive partially occluded objects as being completed behind an occluded surface, a process called visual completion or amodal completion.

  • Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is a small section of the dorsal thalamus. It relays visual information from the retina to the visual cortex.

The human visual system is generally believed to be sensitive to visible light in the range of wavelengths between 370 and 730 nanometers (0.00000037 to 0.00000073 meters) of the electromagnetic spectrum. However, research suggests that humans can perceive light in wavelengths down to 340 nanometers (UV-A), especially the young. Under optimal conditions, these limits of human perception can extend from 310 nm (UV) to 1100 nm (NIR).

Optometrist Care

Quite often, people vocabularies “eyesight” and “vision” the same thing.

Eyesight is tested through one’s ability to see images up close and far away. It is a thorough process. At this point, the optometrist tests for visual acuity about how accurately are your eyes seeing the image? After testing for visual acuity, eye doctors also check to see if the eyes are working in sync, or what is called “binocularity”. When the eyes are not working together, or one eye is working harder than the other, it is common to experience eye strain and headaches.  If left untreated, eyes with poor binocularity can worsen significantly, resulting in conditions like lazy eyes.

Take great care of this most sensitive part. It makes you living!


The divine scriptures are God’s beacons to the world. Surely God offered His trust to the heavens and the earth, and the hills, but they shrank from bearing it and were afraid of it. And man undertook it.
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