In The Name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace.
43:1 Ha. Mim.
See Appendix II.
43:2 Consider this divine writ, clear in itself and clearly showing the truth.
Regarding this rendering of the term mubin, see note 2 on 12:1.
43:3 Behold, We have caused it to be a discourse in the Arabic tongue so that you might encompass it with your reason.
See note 3 on 12:3.
43:4 And, Verily [originating as it does] in the source, with Us, of all revelation, it is Indeed Sublime, Full of Wisdom.
Cf. last clause of 13:39 – “with Him (‘indahu) is the source (umm) of all revelation”. The term umm (lit., “mother”) has often the idiomatic connotation of “origin” or “source” (asi), and sometimes – as in 3:7 – of “essence”. In the present context, only the former meaning is applicable. See also note 11 on the last verse of surah 85.
43:5 [O You who deny the truth!] Should We, perchance, withdraw this reminder from you altogether, seeing that you are people bent on wasting your own selves?
For this rendering of the term musrif, see note 21 on the last sentence of 10:12. The above rhetorical question answers itself, of course, in the negative – implying that God never ceases to “remind” the sinner through His revelations, and always accepts repentance.
43:6 And how many a prophet did We send to people of olden times!
i.e., than the people addressed in verse 5 above.
43:7 But never yet came a prophet to them without their deriding him.
See surah 30, note 45.
43:8 And so, [in the end] We destroyed them [even though they were] of greater might than these, and the [very] image of those people of old became a thing of the past.
43:9 Yet thus it is [with most people], if thou ask them, “Who is it that has created the heavens and the earth?” – they will surely answer, “The Almighty, the All-Knowing has created them.”
The grammatical form nazzala implies here recurrence: hence, “again and again”.
43:10 He it is who has made the earth a cradle for you, and has provided for you ways [of livelihood] thereon so that you might follow the right path.
Lit., “all pairs”. Some commentators regard the term azwaj as synonymous in this context with “kinds” (Baghawi, Zamakhsharl, Baydawi, Ibn Kathir): i.e., they take the above phrase to mean no more than that God created all kinds of things, beings and phenomena. Others (e.g., Tabari) see in it a reference to the polarity evident in all creation. Ibn ‘Abbas (as quoted by Razi) says that it denotes the concept of opposites in general, like “sweet and sour, or white and black, or male and female”; to which Razi adds that everything in creation has its complement, “like high and low, right and left, front and back, past and future, being an attribute”, etc., whereas God – and He alone – is unique, without anything that could be termed “opposite” or “similar” or “complementary”. Hence, the above sentence is an echo of the statement that “there is nothing that could be compared with Him” (112:4).